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    What is Port State Control?

    Port State Control (PSC) is the inspection of foreign ships in national ports to verify that a ship's condition and equipment comply with the requirements of international regulations and that the ship is crewed and operated in compliance with these rules. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), specialized bodies of the United Nations, adopt and implement various international agreements necessary for the enforcement of Port State Control (PSC). Member countries of the IMO should ensure that their ships satisfy the requirements. Compliance with the terms of the agreement is delegated to the flagging country of the parties to the agreement. Examining a foreign ship during berth in a national port is considered an act of cooperation in that the port country confirms whether such requirements are fulfilled.

    Port State Control image

    History of PSC

    • 1972: Australia conducted safety checks on foreign vessels based on its laws.
    • 1978: The U.S. inspected foreign vessels under its laws.
    • 1982: Coastal states’ rights regarding foreign vessels were determined under the United Nations Maritime Law, and the Paris MOU was signed by 14 European countries to implement PSC.
    • 1986.9.1: Korea's first PSC was conducted in Busan and Incheon ports on September 1.
    • 1988: PSC was extended to ports nationwide.
    • 1993: The Tokyo MOU, an Asia-Pacific Port State Control Consultative Body was established.

    Maritime Accidents and International Maritime Conventions

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    Maritime Accidents and International Maritime Conventions
    Year Maritime Incidents Legal Measures Changes of Regulations
    1967 Torrey Canyon Stranding
    • 1967 Adoption of the Ocean Intervention Convention
    • 1969 Adoption of the CLC Convention
    The rise of coastal authority
    1976 Argo Merchant Shipwreck
    • 1978 Port and Tanker Safety Act (USA)
    The rise of port authority
    1978 Amoco Cadiz Stranding
    • 1978 MARPOL, SOLAS
    • Adoption of the STCW Convention Protocol
    • Providing grounds for PSC of UNCLOS
    1987 Herald of Free Enterprise Disaster
    • Significant amendment of the 74/78 SOLAS Convention
    • Adoption of the ISM Code
    • Amendment of the 73/78 MARPOL Appendix
    • Significant amendment of the 1978 STCW Convention
    Strengthening port authority, Strengthening personnel safety inspection
    1990 Scandinavian Star Ferry Fire

    PSC Process

    Inspection Procedure:

    Selection for Inspection: Selection of incoming ships for inspection considering the target factors listed in APCIS (database of Tokyo-MOU member countries);

    First Inspection:

    • Initial inspection: Inspecting the validity of certifications and documents and examining facilities and ships;
    • Issuing reports: A report is submitted to the captain of a ship following access;
    • Specific inspection: Upon discovering deficiencies during the initial inspection, a specific inspection will be performed to secure facilities and for safety management;
    • Suspension of departure: Upon discovering serious deficiencies threatening a crew's safety or ship or causing marine pollution, a ship shall be prohibited from departing the port until the deficiencies are rectified.

    Confirmation Inspection:

    Ships prohibited from departing or found to have deficiencies will be subject to a check-up and to confirm payment of safety fees:

    Confirmation inspection fees (Article 80(5) of the Ship Safety Act)

    Confirmation inspection fees
    Operation Hours / Types of Fee Fees
    During office hours/td> 300,000 won
    After office hours 450,000 won
    Note: The basic fee is for 4 hours based on the departure and arrival time at the office, and an extra 50,000 won is charged per additional hour.
    PSC Process
    Selection of ships - Initial inspection - Rectifying deficiencies before departure - Re-inspection (with fees) - Rectifying deficiencies completion - Departure

    What is Detention?

    The port authority can determine whether to detain a ship until the deficiencies are rectified or if a ship can sail with certain deficiencies without posing an unreasonable danger to safety, health, or the environment, giving careful consideration to the particular circumstances of the intended voyage.

    Detention image

    Detention Standards:

    • Primary consideration;
    • Valid documentation;
    • Minimum crew on board for safety.

    General Consideration:

    • The ability to navigate safely throughout the planned voyage;
    • The ability to safely handle, carry and monitor the condition of cargo during the whole planned voyage;
    • The ability to safely operate the engine room;
    • The ability to maintain proper propulsion and steering;
    • The ability to fight fires effectively on any part of the ship if necessary;
    • The ability to abandon ship speedily and safely and effect a rescue if necessary;
    • The ability to minimize environmental pollution;
    • The ability to maintain adequate stability;
    • The ability to maintain adequate watertight integrity;
    • The ability to send distress signals if necessary.

    PSC Provisions

    International Conventions:

    • 1966: The International Load Line Convention (LL 66)
    • 1974: SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) Convention, 1974; the Protocol of 1978 (SOLAS 74/78)
    • 1973: MARPOL (The Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships), 1973; the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78)
    • 1978/95: International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978/1995 (STCW 78/95)
    • 1972: International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREG 72)
    • 1976: International Labor Organization Convention, 1976 (ILO Convention 147)

    Domestic Laws:

    • Ship Safety Act
    • Maritime Safety Act
    • Marine Environment Management Act
    • International Ship and Port Facility Security Act
    • Seafarers Act
    • Ship Personnel Act

    Relevant Sites

    Relevant Sites
    Relevant Sites URL
    IMO http://www.imo.org
    AMSA http://www.amsa.gov.au
    PARIS MOU http://www.parismou.org
    TOKYO MOU http://www.tokyo-mou.org
    USCG http://homeport.uscg.mil
    Baltic and International Maritime Council http://www.bimco.org
    IACS http://www.iacs.org.uk
    Korean Register http://www.krs.co.kr
    KOMSA http://www.komsa.or.kr
    Korean Law Information Center http://www.law.go.kr
    
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